Most disc herniation happen at the lower lumbar spine, especially at the L4-5 and L5-S1 levels.
Muscular dystrophy is a group of diseases that cause progressive weakness and loss of muscle mass due to a genetic defect.Muscular dystrophy causes the muscles in the body to become very weak. There are many different kinds of muscular dystrophy. Symptoms of the most common variety begin in childhood, primarily in boys. The main sign of muscular dystrophy is progressive muscle weakness. Specific signs and symptoms begin at different ages and in different muscle groups, depending on the type of muscular dystrophy. Some people who have muscular dystrophy will eventually lose the ability to walk. Some of the symptoms of muscular dystrophy are:
Most common type of Muscular Dystrophy is Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
About half of people with muscular dystrophy have this variety. Although girls can be carriers and mildly affected, the disease typically affects boys. About one-third of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy don't have a family history of the disease, possibly because the gene involved.
Signs and symptoms typically appear between the ages of 2 and 3, and may include:
Muscle atrophy is defined as a decrease in the mass of the muscle.Muscular Atrophydescribes a group of diseases which cause a progressive degeneration of the spinal nerves and wasting of the muscles that they control. It is most commonly experienced when persons suffer from temporary disabling circumstances such as being restricted in movement or confined to bed. It can also be due to conditions like Carcinoma, Renalfailures, Diabetes etc. Whenthe muscle tissue is immobilized due to a primary injury such as bone fracture also leads to atrophy.
Symptoms of muscular atrophy are:
Muscle contractures are deformities or "permanent shortening" of the muscles or joints that occur when the soft tissue under the skin loses its elasticity and becomes unable to stretch. It may also affect tendons and ligaments, and may occur in any part of the body. The most common trigger is prolonged muscle spasticity in the affected area, usually as a result of an underlying condition.They often result in restricted or limited movement of the affected body part, as well as pain. Stiffened and shortened muscles, joints, and soft tissues cause only a few but very specific and easily recognizable symptoms, namely:
Human movement and function requires a balance of muscle length and strength between opposing muscles surrounding a joint. On the other hand, 'muscle imbalance' occurs when opposing muscles provide different directions of tension due to tightness or weakness. Muscle balance is considered to be the harmonious action where muscles that surround a joint work together with normal opposing force to keep the bones involved with the joint centered, thus accomplishing human movement. Muscular imbalance is seen when the muscles that surround a joint provide different values of tension, sometimes weaker or tighter than normal, thus limiting the joint movement. Pathological muscle imbalance occurs when the imbalance of the muscles begins to inhibit function.This pathological muscle imbalance may or may not result from a traumatic event, it is usually associated with pain and dysfunction, although there are cases where pain is not apparent, however pathological muscle imbalances ultimately lead to joint dysfunction and changes in normative muscle movement patterns
The main discomforts that happen due to muscle imbalance are:
1. Tennis elbow
Tennis elbow or lateral epicondylitis is a condition in which the outer part of the elbow becomes sore and tender at the lateral epicondyle. The forearm muscles and tendons become damaged from repetitive overuse. This leads to pain and tenderness on the outside of the elbow.Any activity, including playing tennis, that involves repetitive use of the extensor muscles of the forearm can cause acute or chronic tendonitis of the tendinous insertion of these muscles at the lateral epicondyle of the elbow.
Myopathy is a muscular disease in which the muscle fibers do not function, resulting in muscular weakness. Muscle cramps, stiffness, and spasm can be associated with myopathy
Fibromyalgia is a syndrome rather than a disease, in which a person has long-term, body-wide pain and tenderness in the joints, muscles, tendons, and other soft tissues.It is the most common rheumatic cause of chronic diffuse pain. Its main symptoms are- Diffuse aching, stiffness and fatigue. While doing physical examination multiple tenderness points are found in specific areas. Fibromyalgia is having predominance in females with a peak incidence at ages 20-60 years. Fibromyalgia is a common disorder characterized by chronic muscular-skeletal pain, stiffness, paranesthesia and fatigue with multiple painful tender points. Fibromyalgia also occurs in children though it is not very common. In this condition, pain is often accompanied with stiffness which is often worse in morning. Its main causes are painful stimuli, sleep disorders, depression and viral infections. The features of fibromyalgia simulate 'Chronic Fatigue Syndrome' but the former shows a dominance of musculoskeletal pain whereas lassitude dominates the latter. Its symptoms can be exacerbated by exercise inactivity, poor sleep, emotional stress and humid weather. There is no single test that can fully diagnose fibromyalgia. In most of the cases, patients with symptoms of fibromyalgia may also show normal lab test results. Besides, many of the symptoms may mimic those of other arthritis.
4. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
A disorder that causes extreme fatigue. This fatigue is not the kind of tired feeling that goes away after you rest.Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disorder characterized by sudden onset of severe unexplained fatigue, lasting 6 months or more. Associated symptoms include impairment of Neuro-cognitive function, Non-refreshing sleep, Headache, Joint pains, Post-exertional malaise, Muscle aches, and recurrent sore throat. Major causes of CFS, include infection, weak immunity, neuro-endocrine dysfunction, and genetic disorders.
Polymyositis means 'many muscle inflammation'. A rheumatic disease that causes weakness and inflammation of muscles.It can affect people of any age, but most commonly presents between the ages of 50 to 70. PM is rarely seen in people younger than 18 years of age and is common among females than males. The first symptoms are usually painless weakness of the pelvic and proximal lower extremity muscles, which can result in difficulty walking and climbing stairs or in getting up after sitting in a chair. Often the next muscles affected are those of the neck and shoulder girdle. The degree of weakness may vary from mild to near paralysis. Weakness usually develops slowly over weeks to months, although in rare cases weakness may progress more rapidly. The other symptoms are : Difficulty in swallowing (dysphasia), Difficulty in speaking, Joint pain, Fatigue, Shortness of breath.The predominant symptom of the discomfort is muscle weakness.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the joints. It is a chronic disease characterized by disease flares and remissions. When the disease is active, symptoms can include fatigue, loss of energy,lack of appetite, low-grade fever, muscle and joint aches, and stiffness. Muscle and joint stiffness are usually most notable in the morning and after periods of inactivity. Also during flares, joints frequently become red, swollen, painful, and tender. This occurs because the lining tissue of the joint (synovium) becomes inflamed, resulting in the production of excessive joint fluid (synovial fluid). The synovium also thickens with inflammation (synovitis).
Symptoms of Rheumatoid arthritis are:
Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint. Gout is due to elevated levels of uric acid in the blood. This occurs due to a combination of diet and genetic factors. At high levels, uric acid crystallizes and the crystals deposit in joints, tendons and surrounding tissues, resulting in an attack of gout. Gout occurs more commonly in those who eat a lot of meat, drink a lot of beer, or are overweight. Blood uric acid levels may be normal during an attack.Acute gout attacks are characterized by a rapid onset of pain in the affected joint followed by:
Warmth, Swelling, Reddish discoloration, and Marked tenderness. In chronic (theaceous) gout, nodular masses of uric acid crystals (tophi) deposit in different soft-tissue areas of the body.
Ankylosing spondylitis is a form of chronic inflammation of the spine and the sacroiliac joints. Fatigue is a common symptom associated with active inflammation. Inflammation of the spine causes pain and stiffness in the low back, upper buttock area, neck, and the remainder of the spine. The onset of pain and stiffness is usually gradual and progressively worsens with loss of range of motion noticeable over months. Occasionally, the onset is rapid and intense. Lumbar pain (low back pain) and buttock pain are common manifestations of active inflammation in the lumbar spine and sacroiliac joints. The symptoms of pain and stiffness are often worse in the morning or after prolonged periods of inactivity. Motion, heat, and a warm shower often eases pain and stiffness in the morning. Chronic spondylitis and ankylosis cause forward curvature of the upper torso (thoracic spine), which limits breathing capacity. Spondylitis can also affect the areas where ribs attach to the upper spine, further limiting lung capacity. Ankylosing spondylitis can cause inflammation and scarring of the lungs, causing coughing and shortness of breath, especially with exercise and infections. Therefore, breathing difficulty can be a serious complication of ankylosing spondylitis.
Hemiplegia is one of the most common and perhaps the most disabling of all stroke sequels. This is because paralysis frequently undermines fundamental abilities such as eating, driving, writing causing increased reliance on health care system and others. Hemiplegia is paralysis of either the left or right side of the body with loss of function. It is also associated with poor balance, speech deficit and loss of function which results from any injury to motor centers of the brain either due to ischemia or hemorrhage. It is the most common symptom after cerebra vascular accident.8 out of 10 stroke survivors get weakness or the inability to move one side
Frozen shoulder is stiffness, pain, and limited range of movement in your shoulder. It may happen after an injury or overuse of the shoulder joint or from a disease such as diabetes or a stroke. The tissues around the joint stiffen, scar tissue forms, and shoulder movements become difficult and painful. The two main symptoms of a frozen shoulder are pain in the shoulder joint and persistent stiffness in the shoulder joint. This makes it painful and difficult to carry out the full range of normal shoulder movements. The person may find it difficult to perform everyday tasks, such as bathing, dressing, driving, sleeping, etc.
Bursitis is the inflammation of one or more bursae (small sacs) of synovial fluid in the body. . Healthy bursae create a smooth, almost frictionless functional gliding surface making normal movement painless. When bursitis occurs, however, movement relying on the inflamed bursa becomes difficult and painful. Moreover, movement of tendons and muscles over the inflamed bursa aggravates its inflammation, aggravating the problem. Concerned muscles can also be stiffened during the movement. Bursitis can be due to trauma or due to conditions like rheumatoid arthritis. Bursa of knee, shoulder, hip and heel are most commonly affected.
Common bursitis conditions found are
Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of heel pain. The plantar fascia is the flat band of tissue (ligament) that connects heel bone to toes. It supports the arch of foot. Plantar fasciitis is caused by straining the ligament that supports the arch. Repeated strain can cause tiny tears in the ligament. These can lead to pain and swelling. Plantar fasciitis is a disorder that results in pain in the heel and bottom of the foot. The pain is usually most severe with the first steps of the day or following a period of rest. Pain is also frequently brought on by bending the foot and toes up towards the shin and may be worsened by a tight Achilles tendon. Plantar fasciitis is common in middle-aged people. It also occurs in younger people who are on their feet a lot, like athletes or soldiers. It can happen in one foot or both feet. A strain on plantar fascia makes it weak, swollen, and irritated (inflamed).
Polymyositis means 'many muscle inflammation'. A rheumatic disease that causes weakness and inflammation of muscles.
Sciatica is nerve pain from irritation of the sciatic nerve.The sciatic nerve is the largest nerve in the body.Sciatica pain is typically felt from the low back to behind the thigh and radiating down below the knee. Sciatica causes pain, a burning sensation, numbness, or tingling radiating from the lower back and upper buttock down the back of the thigh to the back of the leg. The result is lumbar pain, buttock pain, hip pain, and leg pain. Sometimes the pain radiates around the hip or buttock to feel like hip pain. While sciatica is often associated with lower back pain (lumbago), it can be present without low back pain. Severe sciatica can make walking difficult if not impossible. Sometimes the symptoms of sciatica are aggravated by walking or bending at the waist and relieved by lying down. The pain relief by changing positions can be partial or complete.